Evidence is accumulating that microplastics in the ocean could have significant ecological impacts. Microbeads in cosmetic products have been identified as one of the more easily avoided sources of this pollution, and phase-out agreements are being negotiated in Australia and throughout the world. To inform its considerations, the Australian Government commissioned Blue Environment to research and report on plastic microbeads in cosmetics and other products, covering manufacturing, company usage, products, volumes, fates and the efficiency of wastewater treatment processes in removing microbeads from wastewater.